Annotated Bibliography

Strategies for Youth’s work is enriched by the research and scholarship of professors, stakeholders, and others in the juvenile justice field. The research featured on this page is offered as a resource for advocates, police, and concerned citizens. We understand that this listing is not comprehensive and welcome submissions of articles to be added to this list. We are grateful for the hard work of Sia Henry (Harvard Law School, Class of 2014), Amanda Knightly (Northeastern University, Class of 2019), Luke Liacos (Boston College Law School, Class of 2015), Frances Snellings (Bates College, Class of 2018) and Courtney Waugh, (Bond University in Australia, Class of 2014) in preparing the summaries of these articles.


Abbott, Robert D., Catalano, Richard F., Hawkins, J. David, Herrenkohl, Todd I., Hill, Karl, & Maguin, Eugene (2000). Developmental Risk Factors for Youth Violence. Journal of Adolescent Health. Vol. 26, 176-186.

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Aizer, Anna & Doyle Jr., Joseph J. (2013). Juvenile incarceration, human capital and future crime: evidence from randomly-assigned judges. National Bureau of Economic Research

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Antunes, George & Scott, Eric J. (1981). Calling the Cops: Operators and Citizen Calls for Service. Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 9, 165-179.

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Astor, Ron Avi, Benbenishty, Rami, & Estrada, Jose Nunez (2009). School Violence and Theoretically Atypical Schools: The Principal’s Centrality in Orchestrating Safe Schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 46, 423-461.

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Bercal, Thomas E. (1970). Calls for Police Assistance: Consumer Demands for Governmental Service. American Behavioral Scientist. Vol. 13, 681-691.

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Beger, Randall R (2002). Expansion of Police Power in Public Schools and the Vanishing Rights of Students. Social Justice, Vol. 29, 119-130.

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Black, Donald J. & Reiss Jr., Albert J. (1970). Police Control of Juveniles. American Sociological Review, Vol. 35, 63-77.

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Boggs, Sarah L. & Galliher, John F. (1975). Evaluating the Police: A Comparison of Black Street and Household Respondents. Social Problems, Vol. 22, 393-406.

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Brown, Ben (2006). Understanding and assessing school police officers: A conceptual and methodological comment. Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 34, 591-604.

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Brunson, Ron K. (2007). “Police Don’t Like Black People”: African-American Young Men’s Accumulated Police Experiences. Criminology & Public Policy, Vol. 6, 71-102.

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Brunson, Rod K & Weitzer, Ronald (2009). Police Relations with Black and White Youths in Different Urban Neighborhoods. Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 44, 858-885.

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Brunson, Rod K & Miller, Jody (2005). Young Black Men and Urban Policing In The United States. Brit. J. Criminol., Vol. 46, 613-640.

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Burt, Callie, Simons, Ronald, Gibbons, Frederick (2012). Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience. American Sociological Review. Vol. 77, No. 4, pg. 648 – 677.

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Carter, David (1985). Hispanic Perception of Police Performance: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 13, pg. 487 – 500.

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Clayson, David M. & Twain, David C. (1960). Juvenile Recidivism. The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Political Science. Vol. 51, 77-79.

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Dannefer, Dale & Schutt, Russell K. (1982). Race and Juvenile Justice Processing in Court and Police Agencies. The American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 87, 1113-1132.

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Davis, Robert, Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro, Miller, Joel (2005). Can Effective Policing Also Be Respectful? Two Examples In The South Bronx. Police Quaterly. Vol. 8, No. 2 pg. 229 – 247.

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Dienstein, William (1960). Inter-Professional Differences in Beliefs about the Etiology of Juvenile Delinquency. The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Political Science. Vol. 51, 79-80.

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Fagan, Jeffrey & Tyler, Tom R. (2005). Legal Socialization of Children and Adolescents. Social Justice Research. Vol. 18, 217-242.

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Fine, Michelle, Freudenberg, Nick, Payne, Yasser, Perkins, Tiffany, Smith, Kersha & Wanzer, Katya (2003). “Anything Can Happen With Police Around”: Urban Youth Evaluate Strategies of Surveillance in Public Places. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 59, 141-158.

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Forman, James Jr. (2004). Community Policing and Youth as Assets. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 95.

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Garrison, Arthur H. (1997). Disproportionate Minority Arrest: A Note On What Has Been Said And How It Fits Together. New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement.

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Gau, Jacinta M. and Brunson, Rod K. (2010). Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner-City Young Men’s Perceptions of Police Legitimacy. Justice Quarterly. Vol. 27, 225-279.

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Goff, Phillip Atiba, Jackson, Matthew Christian, Lewis Di Leone, Brooke Allison, Culotta, Carmen Marie & DiTomasso, Natalie Ann (2010). The essence of innocence: consequences of dehumanizing black children. Symposium paper given at the society for personality and social psychology conference, Las Vegas, Nevada.

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Gottesfeld, Harry (1965). Professionals and delinquents evaluate professional methods with delinquents. Social Problems, vol. 13, no. 1, 45-59.

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Greene, Judith (1999). Zero Tolerance: A Case Study of Police Policies and Practices in New York City. Crime & Delinquency. Vol. 45, No. 2, pg. 171 – 187.

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Hadar, Ilana, Snortum, John (1975). The Eye Of The Beholder: Differential Perceptions Of Police By The Police And The Public. Criminal Justice And Behavior.

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Hagan, John, Albonetti, Celesta (1982). Race, Class, and the Perception of Criminal Injustice in America. American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 88, No. 2, pg. 329 – 355.

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Hagedorn, John (1994). Homeboys, Dope Fiends, Legits, and New Jacks. Criminology. Vol. 32, No. 2, pg. 197 – 219.

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Hahn, Harlan (1971). Ghetto Assessments of Police Protection and Authority. Law & Society Review.

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Hahn, Harlan (1971). A profile of urban police. Law and Contemporary Problems, vol. 36, no. 4, 449-466.

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Hawdon, James, Ryan, John, Griffin, Sean (2003). Policing Tactics And Perceptions Of Police Legitimacy. Police Quaterly. Vol. 6, No. 4, pg. 469 – 491.

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Herz, Denise (2001). Improving Police Encounters With Juveniles: Does Training Make A Difference? Justice and Research Policy. Vol. 3, 58-76.

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Hirschfield, Paul, Maschi, Tina, White, Helene, Traub, Leah, Loeber, Rolf, First (2006). Mental Health and Juvenile Arrests: Criminality, Criminalization, Or Compassion? Journal. Vol. 44, No. 3, pg. 593 – 627.

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Hong, Jun S., Gonzalez, Juan Carlos, Kahle, Lindsay L., Peguero, Anthony A., Portillos, Edwardo L., Shekarkhar, Zahra (2013). Victimization, Urbanicity, and the Relevance of Context: School Routines, Race and Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violence. Journal of Criminology. Volume 2013.

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Hopkins, Nick (1994). School Pupils’ Perceptions of the Police that Visit Schools: Not All Police are ‘Pigs.’ Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology. Vol. 4, 189-207.

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Hopkins, Nick (1994). Young People Arguing and Thinking About the Police: Qualitative Data Concerning The Categorization of the Police in a Police-youth Contact Program. Human Relations. Vol. 47, No. 11, pg. 1409 – 1432.

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Huizinga, David, Thornberry, Terence, Knight, Kelly, Lovegrove, Peter, Loeber, Rolf, Hill, Karl, & Farrington, David (2007). Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System: A Study of Differential Minority Arrest/Referral to Court in Three Cities.

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Hurst, Yolander G. & Frank, James (2000). How kids view cops: The nature of juvenile attitudes toward the police. Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 28, 189-202.

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Hurst, Y.G., Frank, J., & Browning, S.L. (2000). The Attitudes of Juveniles Toward the Police: A Comparison of Black and White Youth. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management. Vol. 23, No. 1, pg. 37 – 53.

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Jacob, Herbert (1971). Black And White Perceptions Of Justice In The City. Law & Society Review. Vol. 6, No. 1, pg. 69 – 90.

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Jones-Brown, Delores D. (2000). Debunking the Myth of Officer Friendly: How African American Males Experience Community Policing. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. Vol. 16, 209-229.

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Keane, Carl, Gillis, A. Hagan, John (1989). Deterrence and Amplification of Juvenile Delinquency By Police Contact. Brit. J. Criminol. Vol. 29, No. 4, pg. 336 – 352.

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Kim, Catherine (2012). Policing School Discipline. Brooklyn Law Review. Vol. 77, No. 3

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Kostelnik, Jessica O. & Reppucci, Dickon (2009). Reid Training and Sensitivity to Developmental Maturity in Interrogation: Results from National Survey of Police. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. Vol.27. 361-379.

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Kupchik, Aaron & Ward, Geoff (2013). Race, Poverty, and Exclusionary School Security: An Empirical Analysis of U.S. Elementary, Middle, and High Schools. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.

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Landau, Simha (1978). Do Legal Variables Predict Police Decisions Regarding The Prosecution of Juvenile Offenders? Law And Human Behavior. Vol. 2, No. 2, pg. 95 – 105.

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Leiber, Michael, Nalla, Mahesh, & Farnworth, Margaret (1998). Explaining Juveniles’ Attitudes Toward The Police. Justice Quarterly. Vol. 15, 151-174.

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Leiber, Michael, & Jamieson Katherine (1995). Race and Decision Making Within Juvenile Justice: The Importance of Context. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. Vol. 11, No. 4, 363-384.

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Lopez, Christy E. (2010). Disorderly (mis)Conduct: The Problem with “Contempt of Cop” Arrests. American Constitutional Society for Law and Policy Issue Brief.

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Lopez, Christy (2010). The Problem with “Contempt of Cop” Arrests. American Constitution Society for Law and Policy.

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Mahiri, Jabari & Connor, Erin (2003). Black Youth Violence Has A Bad Rap. Journal of Social Issues. Vol. 59, No. 1, 121-140.

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Mastrofski, Stephen (2004). To Better Serve And Protect: Improving Police Practices. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 593 Annals 100, 100-118.

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Mastrofski, Stephen, Snipes, Jeffrey, & Supina, Anne (1996). Compliance on Demand: The Public’s Response to Specific Police Requests. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Vol. 33, No. 3, 269-304.

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McCarthy, Bill & Hagan, John (2005). Danger and the Decision to Offend. Social Forces. Vol. 85, No. 3, 1065-1096.

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Meares, Tracey (2009). The Legitimacy Of Police Among Young African-American Men. Marquette Law Review. Vol. 92, No. 4, pg. 651 – 666.

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Miner-Romanoff, Karen (2013). Juvenile justice education for at-risk high school youth: a pilot program. Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice Research and Education: pending.

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Nirider, Laura & Tepfer, Joshua. Juvenile Interviewing Best Practices

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Osborough, Nial (1965). Police Discretion Not to Prosecute Juveniles. The Modern Law Review. Vol. 28, No. 4, 421-431.

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Osgood, Wayne, Foster, Michael, & Courtney, Mark (2010). Vulnerable populations and the transition to adulthood. The Future of Children, vol. 20, no. 1, 209-229.

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Overbeck, Zoe (2011). No Match For the Police: An Analysis of Miranda’s Problematic Application to Juvenile Defendants. Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly. Vol. 38, No. 4, pg. 1053 – 1084.

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Petersilia, Joan (1981). Juvenile Record Use in Adult Court Proceedings: A Survey of Prosecutors. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 72, No. 4, 1746-1771.

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Piliavin, Irving & Briar, Scott (1964). Police Encounters With Juveniles. The American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 70, No. 2 pgs. 206-214.

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Rafky, David (1977). The Cognitive Gap Between the Police and the Policed: An Exploratory Study in Attitude Organization. Law and Human Behavior. Vol. 1, No. 1, pgs. 63 – 79.

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Rusinko, William, Johnson, Knowlton, Hornung, Carlton (1978). The Importance of Police Contact in the Formulation of Youths’ Attitudes Toward Police. Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 6, pg. 53 – 67.

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Samara, Tony (2005). Youth, Crime and Urban Renewal in the Western Cape. Journal Of Southern African Studies. Vol. 31, No. 1, pg. 209 – 227.

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Schulenberg, Jennifer L.  and Deirdre M. Warren, “Content and Adequacy of Specialized Police Training to Handle Youth-Related Incidents: Perceptions of Trainers, Supervisors, and Frontline Officers,” International Criminal Justice Review 2009; 19; 456 originally published online Sep 1, 2009.

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Scott, Elizabeth, Steinberg, Laurence (2003). Blaming Youth. Texas Law Review. Vol. 81, pg. 799.

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Scott, Elizabeth, Steinberg, Laurence (2008). Adolescent Development and the Regulation of Youth Crime. The Future Of Children. Vol. 18, No. 2, pg. 15 – 33.

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Shackman, Jessica, Shackman, Alexander, Pollack, Seth (2007). Physical Abuse Amplifies Attention To Threat And Increases Anxiety In Children. Attentional Control and Emotion. Vol. 7, No. 4, pg. 838 – 852.

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Sherman, Lawrence. Policing For Crime Prevention. Chapter 8.

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Smith, Paul, Hawkins, Richard (1973). Victimization, Type of Citizen-Police Contacts, and Attitudes Toward the Police. Law & Social Review. Vol. 8, No. 1, pg. 135 – 152.

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Spohn, Ryan E. and Don Kurtz. 2011 “Family Structure as a Social Context for Family Conflict: Unjust Strain and Serious Delinquency.” Criminal Justice Review 36:332-356.

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Spohn, Ryan E. and Spencer D. Wood. 2014. “Spare the Rod, Endanger the Child? Strain, Race/Ethnicity, and Serious Delinquency.” Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice. 12:159-193

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Stoutland, Sara (2001). The Multiple Dimensions Of Trust In Resident/Police Relations In Boston. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Vol. 38, No. 3, pg. 226 – 256.

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Sweeten, Gary (2006). Who will graduate? Disruption of high school education by arrest and court involvement. Justice Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 4, 462 – 480.

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Webb, Vincent, Marshall, Chris (1995). The Relative Importance Of Race And Ethnicity On Citizen Attitudes Toward The Police. American Journal Of Police. Vol. 14, No. 2, pg. 45 – 66.

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Williams, Brian (1999). Perceptions Of Children And Teenagers On Community Policing: Implications For Law Enforcement Leadership, Training, and Citizen Evaluations. Police Quarterly. Vol. 2, No. 2, pg. 150 – 173.

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Zavala, Egbert and Ryan E. Spohn. 2013. “The Role of Vicarious and Anticipated Strain on the Overlap of Violent Perpetration and Victimization: A Test of General Strain Theory.” American Journal of Criminal Justice. 38:119-140.

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